Chapter 1: A Fighting Faith

Scroll down for Extended Endnotes


Eleanor Roosevelt

Blanche Wiesen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt: Volume 2, The Defining Years, 1933–1938 (New York: Viking, 1999)

Doris Kearns Goodwin, No Ordinary Time: The Home Front in World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995)

Joseph Lash, Eleanor Roosevelt: A Friend’s Memoir (New York: Doubleday, 1964)

Joseph Lash, Eleanor: The Years Alone (New York: Norton, 1972)


Student Movement of the 1930s

Cohen, Robert When the Old Left was Young: Student Radicals and America’s First Mass Student Movement, 1929-1941 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). See especially, “The Spring Sound: Communism and the Decline of the 1930s Peace Movement.”

John Patrick Diggins, The Rise and Fall of the American Left (New York: W. W. Norton &Co., 1992). See especially Chapter 5, The Old Left.

Hal Draper, The Student Movement of the 1930s: A Political History (Center for Socialist History, 1965); also in Rita Simon, Ed., How We Saw the Thirties (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1967). Draper writes from a Marxist/Socialist perspective.

James Wechsler, Revolt on Campus (New York: Covici-Friede, 1935)


Stalin-Hitler Pact

Gabriel Gorodetsky, Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia (London: Yale University Press, 1998)

Wolfgang Leonhard, Betrayal: The Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989)

Geoffrey Roberts, “The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany,” Soviet Studies 44:1, 1992

George Watson, “The Eye-Opener of 1939: Or How the World Saw the Nazi-Soviet Pact” History Today, Vol. 54, August 2004: 48-53


International Student Service and U.S. Committee Members

Clyde Eagleton, “Review of America’s Strategy in the World,” Annals of American Academy of Political and Social Science (July 1942)

Clyde Eagleton, The Forces That Shape Our Future (New York: New York University Press, 1945)

Kenneth Holland, Youth in American Labor Camps (American Council on Education Report, 1939)

Walter M. Kotschnig, Slaves Need No Leaders: An Answer to the Fascist Challenge to Education (New York: Oxford University Press, 1943).

George N. Shuster, The Ground I Walk On: Reflections of a College President (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Cudahy, 1961)

Mary A. Thompson, Unofficial Ambassadors: The Story of International Student Service (International Student Service, 1982)

World University Service (formerly ISS) World Student Relief, 1940-1950, and World University Service, (Report copy at Yale University Library Archives, United Student Christian Council papers.

Stephen Duggan, Stephen Duggan: A Professor at Large (New York: Macmillan Company, 1943) This autobiography of the founder of the International Institute of Education contains information on ISS and Eleanor Roosevelt’s role.


Liberal Anti-Communism

Adam Clymer, The Union for Democratic Action: Key to the Noncommunist Left (Honors Thesis: Harvard University, 1958). UDA later became Americans for Democratic Action.

Steven M. Gillon, Politics and Vision: The ADA and American Liberalism, 1947-1985 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

John Earl Haynes, Communism and Anti-Communism in the United States: An annotated Guide to Historical Writings (New York: Garland, 1987)

Judy Kutulas, The Long War: The Intellectual People’s Front and Anti-Stalinism: 1930-1940, (Durham: Duke University Press, 1995)

Mary Sperling McAuliffe, Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947-1954 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts press, 1978).

Richard Gid Powers, Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998)

Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Vital Center: The Politics of Freedom (Boston:Houghton Mifflin, 1949).

Alan M. Wald, The New York Intellectuals: the Rise and Decline of the Anti-Stalinist Left from the 1930s to the 1980s (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987).


U.S. Government–Campus and Private Sector Groups, World War II

The January 1944 Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, devoted the entire issue to the new wartime relationships.

Sigmund Diamond, Compromised Campus: The Collaboration of Universities with the Intelligence Community, 1945-1955 (New York: Oxford) While focused on the post-war period, Diamond covers the wartime origins.

Andrew Johnstone, “Creating a ‘Democratic Foreign Policy’: The State Department’s Division of Public Liaison and Public Opinion, 1944-1953,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 35, 3, (2011), 483-503.

Lukas Haynes and Michael Ignatieff, “Mobilizing Public Support for the United Nations,” A Case Study of State Department Leadership in Building Public and Congressional Support for a Leading U.S. Role in International Organization

Ruth E. McMurry and Muna Lee, The Cultural Approach: Another Way in International Relations (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1947)

Charles A. Thomson and Walter H.C. Laves, Cultural Relations and U.S. Foreign Policy (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1963)



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 17: Eleanor Roosevelt and Louis Fischer family: Foreign correspondent Louis Fischer was married to a Russian woman, and his sons were Soviet citizens. Before the war began, ER helped get his family out of the Soviet Union. Son George was an active participant in the ISS-sponsored Campobello summer program. After the war, in 1948, George Fischer went to work for the CIA-funded Russian Research Center at Harvard University, and soon became a consultant to former OSS veteran Evron Kirkpatrick in the Office of Intelligence Research/State Department. (Compromised Campus), cited above, pp. 94-100.)

Note 25: ISS U.S. Executive Committee included: Chair, Alvin Johnson (New School for Social Research); Clyde Eagleton (Columbia University), Archibald MacLeish (Library of Congress), Kenneth Holland (American Council of Education), Harry D. Gideonse (Brooklyn College), William Fletcher (Yale University); Carl J. Friedrich (Harvard University), Edwin R. H. Espy (YMCA), Walter Kotschnig (Smith), George Shuster (Hunter College); A. Roland Elliott (YMCA); Edgar J. Fisher (Institute for International Education); Alfred E. Cohn (Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research); William Allan Neilson (Smith College); Reinhold Niebuhr (Union Theology); Algernon D. Black (New York Society for Ethical Culture), Eliot Pratt (Philanthropist)

ISS National Committee included: Mary A. Cheek (Rockford College); Benjamin Gerig (Diplomat, League of Nations); Arnold Wolfers (Yale University),; Frank P. Graham (University of North Carolina), Homer P. Rainey (University of Texas), George F. Zook (American Council on Education); James T. Shotwell (retired diplomat), Quincy Wright (University of Chicago), Payson S. Wild (Harvard University).

Note 26. Examples of ISS members government service during wartime: Walter Kotschnig, State Department, June, 1944; he drafted the speech for Secretary Stettinius to deliver at the 1945 founding of the United Nations; Archibald MacLeish, Library of Congress (1939-1944); he helped found Office of War Information and the Office of Strategic Services Research & Analysis Branch, and became Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs (1944-1945); Clyde Eagleton, Department of State; Kenneth Holland, Education Division, Office of Inter-American Affairs (1942-5); George Shuster, War Department, German research mission, May 1945.

Most ISS U.S. sponsors and committee members also served on the Commission to Study the Organization of Peace, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, which eventually became part of the State Department. Both the Commission and ISS shared the same New York address at 8 West 40th Street. Commission members included Shotwell, Wright, Eagleton, Shuster, Wolfers, and Neilson, among others. William Allan Neilson served as Chair from 1940-1945. See Robert P. Hillmann, “Quincy Wright and the Commission to Study the Organization for Peace,” Global Governance 4 (1998), 485-499.

Note 39: ISS/SSA Donors: Among the most prominent were Mrs. David (Adele) Levy; Mrs. Henry Goddard Leach; Mrs. William (Dorothy) Paley. In 1940, Levy and Leach were members of the Executive Committee; Dorothy Paley joined a little later. Re finances: Kotschnig papers include a letter of August 12, 1941 to a friend in England, describing how the ISS annual budget had increased from $7,000 before the restructuring of the committee to $70,000 afterward, that translates in 2014 dollars to a budget of more than $1.1 million. (General Correspondence, 1941, letter to James Park)

Note 41: Student Service of America letterhead included: Alfred E. Cohn; Stephen Duggan; Clyde Eagleton; Edgar J. Fisher; Harry D. Gideonse; Alvin Johnson; Walter M. Kotschnig; William A. Neilson; Mrs. William Paley; George N. Shuster. Both Duggan and Fisher led the Institute of International Education, the State Department’s contract arm for cultural exchange programs.

Note 43: Government-private sector coordinating committees: The American Council on Education hosted a major review of post-war programs with top educators and government officials (State Department; Office of Education; Bureau of the Budget; Office of War Information; Inter-American Affairs; etc.). In 1949, NSA would participate in the post-war coordinating meetings led by Harvard educator, Howard E. Wilson, then with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, who also convened the 1944 meeting as ACE Chair.

Note 47: State Department –regional student conferences. Most likely, someone from the State Department’s Office of Public Information (later changed to Public Affairs) made the approach to Frank Porter Graham, President of the University of North Carolina, in the spring of 1945 to sponsor one of the proposed regional student conferences that resulted in the formation of the Southern Students Conference. Its Director, John S. Dickey, reported to Archibald MacLeish, who was then mobilizing different American constituencies to support the new United Nations. In fact, the two newly elected Southern Students Conference leaders, Douglass Hunt (UNC) and Charles Proctor (Fisk) represented the new student organization a few weeks later at the founding meeting of the UN in San Francisco in April 1945. The most likely emissary to Graham from the State Department was Chester S. Williams, an education specialist in the division. A few months after the UN founding, Dickey became the president of Dartmouth College. Both Hunt and Proctor became members of the Prague 25, and founders of NSA.

Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26