Chapter 2: Apostolic Catholics

 Scroll down for Extended Endnotes


Father John Courtney Murray

Thomas Hughson, S. J. The Believer as Citizen: John Courtney Murray in a New Context (Mahwah, N.J.: Paulist Press, 1993)

Father John Courtney Murray, S. J., We Hold These Truths: Catholic Reflections on the American Proposition (New York: Sheed & Ward, 1960) Georgetown University Library’s web site has a complete listing of Murray’s writings.

Donald E. Pelotte, John Courtney Murray: Theologian in Conflict (New York: Paulist Press 1976)

“U.S. Catholics and the State,” Time magazine, December 12, 1960, features Murray on the cover.


Catholics and Anti-Communism

Patrick Allitt, Catholic Intellectuals and Conservative Politics in America, 1950-1985 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993)

Steven M. Avella, This Confident Church: Catholic Leadership and Life in Chicago, 1940-1965 (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1992)

Paul Blanchard, Communism, Democracy, and Catholic Power (Boston: Beacon Press, 1951). Controversial comparison between the Vatican and the Kremlin/Catholicism and Communism.

John F. Cronin, The Problem of American Communism in 1945. This was an influential, if confidential, report to the American Catholic Bishops, which drew heavily on FBI information. See John F. Cronin Archives at Notre Dame University.

Ruth Fischer, Stalin and German Communism (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948). In 1946, Fischer trained Catholic members of the American student delegation to Prague.

Robert L. Frank, “Prelude to Cold War: American Catholics and Communism,” Journal of Church and State 34:1 (Winter 1992).

Steve Rosswurm, The FBI and the Catholic Church, 1935-1962 (Boston: University of Massachusetts Press, 2010). An unprecedented and thorough examination of this relationship.


Catholics and Modernity

Philip Gleason, Contending with Modernity: Catholic Higher Education in the Twentieth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 240-244. Gleason cites the United States National Student Association as an example of the “break-out-of-the-ghetto spirit of post-war Catholic liberalism.”

Patrick J. Hayes, A Catholic Brain Trust: The History of the Catholic Commission on Intellectual and Cultural Affairs, 1945-1965 (Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2011


Vatican Foreign Policy

Camille M. Cianfarra, The Vatican and the Kremlin (New York: E. P. Dutton & Co, 1950)

John Cornwell, Hitler’s Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII (New York: Viking Press, 1999) Granted access to the Vatican archives as a Catholic sympathetic to Pope Pius, XII, Cornwell describes his “moral shock” over his findings.

Gerald P. Fogarty, The Vatican and the American Hierarchy from 1870 to 1965 (Collegeville, Minn: Liturgical Press, 1985)

Massimo Franco, translated by Roland Flamini, Parallel Empires: The Vatican and the United States—Two Centuries of Alliance and Conflict (New York: Doubleday, 2009).



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 2: OSS-Vatican relationship: The OSS established an intelligence relationship with the Vatican during WWII. Pope Pius XII awarded the Director of OSS, William “Wild Bill” Donovan the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Sylvester, one of the Vatican’s highest honors. After the war, Frank Wisner’s Office of Policy Coordination covertly targeted the Italian elections, and provided massive funding to the Christian Democrats in order to prevent Communists from coming to power in the 1948 elections. The most controversial of the Vatican’s post-war activities was assistance to the OSS and U.S. military officials to send former Nazi scientists to the United States in Operation Paperclip, dubbed the ratline in recent times. See Annie Jacobsen, Operation Paperclip (New York: Little Brown, 2014)

Note 4: Catholic funds: Father Murray uses the $1,000 figure in a May 8, 1946 letter to his superior, Francis A. McQuade, S.J., New York. Mrs. Basil Harris, Jr., he wrote, had pledged additional funds. Basil Harris was a prominent Catholic who was vice president of U.S. Lines, a major shipping company that played an important role in World War II.

Note 12: Pax Romana: The official international student movement of the Vatican was Pax Romana, founded in 1923 in Fribourg, Switzerland, where it was headquartered. In 1939, Edward Kirchner served as the North American director, and hosted a 1939 Pax Romana international conference. During the conference, when war was declared in Europe, some delegates became stranded and could not return home. Kirchner, then a graduate student at Catholic University of America, assumed temporary responsibility for all Pax Romana activities. During the war he also served in the U.S. Naval Reserve, and participated in Catholic action circles in Washington, D.C.

Note 17: Catholic International Cooperation: The National Catholic Welfare Conference (staff to the U.S. Catholic Bishops) initially viewed both students and youth activities in the broader context of international intellectual cooperation. During the war, NCWC staff advised the new State Department Division of Cultural Relations, joined ad hoc government-private sector committees to establish international student programs, participated the formation of UNESCO, and ensured Catholic programs conformed to U.S. national security concerns. The Jesuit publication, America is a good source of information on these wartime activities.

Note 18: Ridgley Manor Training: Martin M. McLaughlin’s article in America contains a break-down of those who received special training at Ridgley Manor: He lists a total of thirteen graduate students, including four Prague delegates (World Student Congress), five bound for Fribourg (Pax Romana conference), four associates, and eight experts. Criteria for selection to the training sessions included language ability and availability for future work. “On a Threshold,” America, June 29, 1946, 75: 263.

Note 23: Catholics on the Prague 26 delegation: In Father Murray’s letter to his superior, he noted that some Catholic students identified their interest in the World Student Congress to him; others he solicited.

Note 24: Martin M. McLaughlin and government service: According to his Washington Post obituary, November 29, 2007, McLaughlin’s wartime service included postings to North Africa and India. A 2008 U.S. Senate resolution honoring McLaughlin filled in some gaps in his subsequent government service: Bonn (circa 1952), NATO headquarters in Paris (1957), and Washington, D.C. (circa 1961) before becoming Assistant Secretary for Educational and Cultural Affairs. Before retiring in the mid-70s, he became the Deputy Director, Office of International Training, at the Agency for International Development. He remained throughout his life a liberal Catholic activist, focusing especially on issues of hunger and poverty.

Note 29: Catholic Action: For detail on Catholic Action, see Louis J. Putz, “Reflections on Specialized Catholic Action, U.S. Catholic Historian (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University, 1990) 9:4   Martin McLaughlin was one of Putz’s students in the Notre Dame Catholic Action cell.

Note 33: Catholic report: The Catholics identified two U.S. delegates who were “known Communists,” in their report on the 1946 World Student Congress but believed “their team consisted actually of six, who were at times able to persuade a majority.”

Note 34: Sally Cassidy: Cassidy’s reporting in Europe during 1946-1947 also covered youth (as distinct from student) activities, and was incorporation into secret State Department intelligence reports. See, for example, OIR Report No. 5256, “The World Assembly of Youth: International Organization of Non-Communist Youth.” Footnote 2, p. 2 relies on a confidential letter from Cassidy to the National Catholic Welfare Conference detailing a London conference.

Note 35: Douglass Cater: According to the Harvard Crimson, May 25, 1946, Cater majored in Slavic Language and Area Studies. The article noted he had returned to Harvard after “two years with the Russian Division of the OSS, working in the central intelligence section.” He later wrote in the 25th anniversary edition of his class notes, known as the Red Book, that he wanted to go to Harvard law school but his choice was dictated by the fact that “the scholarship [for the Slavic program] was bigger,” although he did not identify his sponsor. (Harvard Class of 1946, 25th Anniversary Report, Harvard University, 1971.)

Note 42: William Ellis appointment: According to National Interfaith Christian Council (NICC), officials originally designated two professional staff, Wilmer Kitchens (WSSF), and Leila Anderson (YWCA) to serve on the student delegation to the World Student Congress. On May 3, 1946, NICC minutes record a motion to either obtain a fifth slot for “a Negro” or to make an adjustment, since it was “inadvisable to have a white delegation….” Shortly thereafter, Ellis replaced Kitchens.

Note 48: Ellis relationship with NICC: On November 8, 1946, after William Ellis won election as an IUS Vice President, he requested of NICC that he be relieved from duties with a U.S. youth group, then called the Young Adult Council (YAC). YAC, later renamed the United States Youth Council, became the domestic affiliate of the World Assembly of Youth, the CIA counteroffensive against the Communist-dominated World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY). As early as 1945, Muriel Jacobson (YWCA professional staff) had met in London with her British counterparts in the Y, and others, to plan a counter offensive against WFDY. (General Bibliography: Kotek, pp. 73-74)

Note 55: Louis J. Putz: The author wishes to thank Notre Dame Professor David B. Burrell for information on Louis J. Putz, a pioneer in Catholic Action, who taught at Notre Dame after fleeing Germany in 1940. In July 1946, Putz sailed with the Prague 25 delegation to the World Student Congress, and was later eulogized at his memorial service for his role in establishing NSA.

Note 67: The Harvard delegation to Chicago: The Harvard Crimson, December 12,1946, reported the Chicago delegation included, in addition to Douglass Cater, undergraduates Clifton R. Wharton, Eugene A. Dinet, Jr. and graduate student, Andrew E. Rice. Dinet, like Cater, was an OSS veteran, and worked with the European student underground during WWII. The slate of candidates had been nominated by a panel chaired by Thomas Matters, who headed the short-lived International Student Assembly (1943), and was then assistant Dean of Harvard College. The panel chose ten students out of a pool of thirty for a student vote. Winners were announced in the Harvard Crimson on December 19, 1946. Cater was the top vote-getter, followed by Dinet.

Before Cater’s elected in December, he was playing an active role: The Harvard Crimson, November 13, 1946, reported that Cater had recommended to his newly-created sub-committee of the Harvard Student Council that “it take the lead in consolidating New England colleges into a Regional Union for the purpose of securing participation at the Chicago Conference in December, 1946 and that eventually form their own branches of the Student Union.” The phrasing suggests that Cater was aware of State Department strategies to encourage regional student organizations, such as the Southern Conference of Students formed in April 1945, as the basis for a future national organization. Similarly, Prague 25 delegate Joseph Malik from the University of Texas was often identified as speaking for universities and colleges in the region. As it turned out, regional organizations did not become the basis of NSA, but the regional approach was incorporated for the selection of an executive committee to oversee NSA officers and programs.

Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26