Chapter 15: Social Upheavals

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Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000).

Constance Curry, “Wild Geese to the Past,” in Constance Curry et. al., Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2002)

Andrew B. Lewis, SNCC: The Shadows of Youth: The Remarkable Journey of the Civil Rights Generation (New York: Hill and Wang, 2009)

John Lewis, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace & Co: 1998)


Youth Americans for Freedom

John A. Andrew III, The Other Side of the Sixties: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of Conservative Politics (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997)

Niels Bjerre-Poulsen, Right Face: Organizing the American Conservative Movement, 1945-1965 (Copenhagen: Museum Tusulanum Press, 2002) See especially, “Battling the NSA.”

Mary C. Brennan, Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995)

Stanton Evans, Revolt on Campus (Chicago, Ill: Henry Regnery Company, 1961) See especially Chapter 8, “The Battle Against NSA.”

Rick Perlstein, Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001)

Howard Phillips, The New Right at Harvard (Vienna, VA: The Conservative Caucus, 1983)

Gregory L. Schneider, Cadres for Conservatives: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of the Contemporary Right (New York: New York University Press, 1999)


New Left (See Chapter 16)

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Jose Ramón Fernandez, Playa Giron/Bay of Pigs: Washington’s First Military Defeat in the Americas. (New York: Pathfinder Press, 2001)

Piero Gleijeses, “Ships in the Night: The CIA, the White House and the Bay of Pigs”. Journal of Latin American Studies, Feb., 1995, 27:1; 1–42

Hayne Johnson, The Bay of Pigs: The Leaders’ Story of Brigade 2506. (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1964)

Peter Kornbluh, Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba. (New York: The New Press, 1998) Kornbluh directs the Cuban Documentation Project at the National Security Archives, affiliated with George Washington University.

Tad Szulc and Karl E. Meyer. The Cuban Invasion. The Chronicle of a Disaster (New York: Frederick E. Praeger, Inc., 1962)

Tim Weiner, “Bay of Pigs Enemies Finally Sit Down Together,” New York Times, March 23, 2001.

Peter Wyden, Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979)



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Notes 14-15: NSA elections. Peter Eckstein reports that he didn’t lose the election to Isabel Marcus, since he withdrew his candidacy before it was put to a vote on the plenary floor. While this is technically accurate, it was also a convention for NSA candidates for office to withdraw from a race before a formal vote recorded a defeat. The person who nearly defeated Marcus in a floor vote was Rolf Kjolseth, from the University of Colorado, who at the time desperately wanted to become the international affairs vice president. In a contemporary conversation, he expressed relief that he lost the election.

The Cast of Characters incorrectly identifies Eckstein after the 1959 Congress as staff, rather than advisor, to the International Commission (International Advisory Board). During that time, Eckstein earned his masters degree at Harvard University (1960). He then took a position with COSEC in 1961-1964 as editor of The Student, and was not affiliated with the Foreign Student Leadership Project. The text accurately conveys that he remained trusted by the CIA/NSA witting participants, and received future appointments.

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