Chapter 11: Hungary and the Struggle Against Nonalignment

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The Hungarian Uprising

Csaba Békés, “The 1956 Hungarian Revolution and World Politics,” Cold War International History Project, Working Paper 16 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 1996)

F. Dreisziger, “The 1956 Hungarian Student Movement in Exile: An Introduction,” Hungarian Studies Review, Vol. XX. Nos 1-2 (Spring-Fall, 1993), 103-116; Dreisziger puts the number of Hungarian students who fled at 8,000.

Pawel Machcewicz, Rebellious Satellite: Poland 1956 (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press: 2009)

János M. Rainer, Imre Nagy: A Biography, (London: I.B. Tauris, 2008). Nagy was the reformist Communist leader of Hungarian at the time of the uprising.

George R. Urban, Radio Free Europe and the Pursuit of Democracy (New Haven: Yale University Press: 1997), a memoir by a Hungarian exile who worked for RFE.


U.S. Policy and Hungary

László Borhi, Hungary in the Cold War, 1945-1956: Between the United States and the Soviet Union (Budapest: Central European University Press, 2004).

László Borhi, “Containment, Rollback, Liberation or Inaction? The United States and Hungary in the 1950s,” Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol 1: 3, 1999, 67-108

Charles Gati, Failed Illusions: Moscow, Washington, Budapest, and the 1956 Hungarian Revolt (Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 2006)

Peter Grose, Operation Rollback: America’s Secret War Behind the Iron Curtin (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 2000)


Suez War

Chester L. Cooper, The Lion’s Last Roar: Suez, 1956 (New York: Harper & Row, 1978)

Ray Takeyh, The Origins of the Eisenhower Doctrine: The U.S., Britain, and Nasser’s Egypt, 1953-57 (London: Macmillan, 2000). See especially Chapter 6.

Derek Varble, The Suez Crisis, 1956 (Essential Histories) (Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2003)



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 12: Radio Free Europe support for Hungarian students: On November 19, 1956, Gray notified the NSA International Commission (Larkin) that, after the coordinating committee met in Vienna: “Free Europe Citizens Service said it would fill out any gaps in the financing of the committee’s program, and the various student groups who cooperated in establishing the committee promised for the most part to work through it.” H/NSA Box 28 (Gray)

  • On December 13, 1956, Clive Gray reported from Vienna that hard feelings had arisen against Radio Free Europe for raising expectations among students that scholarships to the West were plentiful. H/NSA Box 28 (Gray)
  • On December 23, 1956 Larkin reported to Gray on the Free Europe Committee’s funding for a tour of Hungarian trade unionists and students in Latin America, and added, “Though we have no monopoly on students, I’m not very happy about this since I don’t know where they are going, under whose sponsorship, etc.” H/NSA Box 213 (Hungary)
  • On December 23, 1956, Paris-based NSA representative Crawford Young reported on a Le Monde article critical of Laszlo (Alpar Bujdosó), after Laszlo gave an interview on Radio Liberation (later Radio Liberty), during which he called for further uprisings. The radio signal was aimed at the Soviet Union and sponsored by the Free Europe Committee. Le Monde described the Hungarian’s sentiments as “perfectly understandable,” but charged that “broadcasters never learn,” referring to Radio Free Europe’s “lack of responsibility which has had disastrous consequences in Hungary.” H/NSA Box 33 (Young).
  • On February 26, 1957, Bruce Larkin wrote to Della Cava that Radio Free Europe offered to support Béla Liptak, a Hungarian student refugee in the United States, at $50 a month, and to print a newspaper for the students. Larkin was critical: “I cannot imagine that the RFE assistance will help the American group remain independent.” H/NSA Box 25 (Della Cava)

Note 39: Threat to withhold funds: The NSA funds that Ralph Della Cava threatened to withhold appear to have been from the San Jacinto Foundation, a CIA conduit based in Houston, Texas. The foundation had promised funds for a team of Hungarians to tour Asia and the neutralist countries. February 3, 1957 H/NSA Box 213 (Hungary) See also, February 8, 1957, H/NSA Box 211 (Hungary) for formal announcement of San Jacinto award for $5,000.

Note 51: Hungarians tour of Asia: Fifty years later, on November 8, 2006, Alpar Bujdoso addressed a United Nations sponsored anniversary commemoration of the uprising, and recalled the Asian tour. This time, he criticized Radio Free Europe, although by implication and not by name. “It is not a commonplace, however, to recall that this hope of ours, – no matter how doomed it was from the start – was strengthened by certain radio stations abroad. The greater was my disappointment, and not only mine, also that of my friends, and the government.”

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