Chapter 5: Allard Lowenstein and the International Student Conference

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Allard Lowenstein

William Chafe, Never Stop Running (Princeton: Princeton University Press: 1998)

David Harris, Dreams Die Hard (New York: St. Martin’s Press: 1982)

Richard Cummings, The Pied Piper (New York: Grove/Atlantic: 1985).


Council on Foreign Relations

Peter Grose, Continuing the Inquiry: The Council on Foreign Relations From 1921 to 1996 (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2006). Comprehensive history written on for the 85th anniversary of the CFR founding.

Sallie Pisani, The CIA and the Marshall Plan (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1991). Pisani covers CFR coordination with intelligence operations.

Edmond Taylor, Awakening from History (Boston: Gambit, Inc., 1969). Specialist in psychological warfare, directed CFR study group 5152.

Edmond Taylor, The Strategy of Terror: Europe’s Inner Front (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1940). See especially his chapter, “Ideals as Weapons.”

Michael Wala, The Council on Foreign Relations and American Foreign Policy in the Early Cold War (Providence: Berghahn,1994). See especially his chapter, Managing the Public, which covers WWII citizens groups, and post-war CIA-funded groups, such as the National Committee for Free Europe, and Radio Free Europe.


Olof Palme

Richard Arndt, The First Resort of Kings: American Cultural Diplomacy in the 20th Century (Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, 2005) Arndt maintains that Palme’s later anti-Americanism stemmed from being entrapped by the CIA in the World Assembly of Youth (WAY), but that seems too narrow an explanation, given Palme’s own ties to Swedish intelligence, his rejection of American overtures to lead COSEC, the general evolution of his political views, and his opposition to the Vietnam War.

Hendrik Berggren, Wonderful Days in Front of Us (Stockholm: Norstedts, 2012)

Kjell Östberg, I Takt Med Tiden: [Behind the Times] Olof Palme 1927-1969 (Stockholm: Leopard, 2008), and När Vinden Vände: Olof Palme 1969-1986 (Stockholm: Leopard, 2009). In Swedish, exhaustive two-volume biography of Olof Palme.

Monica Quirico, “One Life, Many Readings,” Nordicum-Mediterraneum (Icelandic E Journal of Nordic and Mediterranean Studies), 6:1, 2011. Quirico offers a thoughtful analysis of Palme’s major biographers, including Berggren and Ostberg.


Institute for International Education

Stephen M. Halpern, “The IIE: A History,” Columbia University dissertation, 1969; Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms International, 1971.



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 22: Robert Smith: Shortly afterward the Stockholm meeting where he had been so helpful to American officials, State Department officials moved to hire Robert Smith for a UNESCO position in Paris and, temporarily, ran into a problem with his security clearance. The problem stemmed from his employment with the ISS/World University Service in Geneva; it seems the organization’s ecumenical orientation and commitment to nonpartisanship made it politically suspect. See NARA, RG 59, 800.4614/4-451.

Note 39: Council on Foreign Relations: The CFR archives, previously located at the Pratt House in New York city, now reside at Princeton University. The Rapporteur for Study Group 5152 was Paul Seabury, a Columbia graduate student, who had attended the 1949 World Youth Festival in Sofia, Bulgaria, and had reported his observations to State Department and intelligence officials. The CFR submitted a proposal for Study Group 5152 to the State Department and the CIA in February, 1949, and began meeting shortly thereafter.

Study Group 5152 Participants [Not inclusive]:
  • Whitney H. Shepardson, Chair (former OSS, Secret Intelligence Branch)
  • John Gardner, Carnegie Corporation (former OSS)
  • Kenneth Holland, Institute for International Education (former Department of       State)
  • Lewis Galantiére, National Committee for Free Europe (former WWII Office of War Information)
  • Allen Dulles, V-P, CFR; CIA (former OSS)
  • Foy D. Kohler, Voice of America (Career diplomat)
  • Harry H. Harper, Reader’s Digest (former OSS)
  • Allan Hovey, Jr., later a director of the CIA-funded American Committee for a      United Europe (ACUE).
  • Phillips Talbot, Naval Intelligence, WWII
  • Philip C. Horton, Executive Editor, The Reporter magazine (former OSS; CIA station chief in Paris)
  • Howard J. Osborn, CIA career officer

Note 49: Melvin Conant: During the Nixon administration, White House aide H. R. (Bob) Haldeman recommended Melvin Conant to Nixon for the position of Assistant Secretary of State for European Affairs. Nixon eventually appointed him to another position, but Conant was not confirmed by the U.S. Senate.

Note 51. Educational Projects, Inc. The EPI non-profit entity established in March 1951 to receive tax deductible funds led to a comical dance between government agencies. The Internal Revenue Service, suspicious of the NSA liberal political orientation, denied EPI a tax-exemption. The CIA funded an appeal through its conduit, the Foundation for Youth and Student Affairs, which in turn hired the law firm of Covington and Burling to fight the appeal before the IRS. Further, James P. Grant, who initially urged NSA to form a non-profit, was affiliated with Covington and Burling. NSA eventually won the appeal and EPI became tax exempt, but FYSA, not surprisingly, awarded its funds directly to the NSA International Commission.

Note 57: German project funding: Erskine Childers’ memo on the Rockefeller Foundation grant describes it as “a special allocation of surplus quarterly funds,” and not “a regular type of interest of the foundation,” further suggesting informal government and philanthropic coordination.

Note 60: Lowenstein/Eisenberg: Eisenberg wrote explicitly about Lowenstein’s distance, “He did not communicate with me.” See General Bibliographies (American Students Organize, p. 524)

Note 69: Helen Jean Rogers: Chafe, Never Stop Running (p.119) characterizes the Lowenstein-Rogers relationship as romantic during the period immediately following the 1950 Congress. Their friendship is perhaps one reason why Lowenstein later wondered aloud about her involvement with the CIA and noted that she had not confided in him.

Note 71: Helen Jean Rogers’ nomination: Chair of the Liberal Caucus, Galen Martin, said in a telephone interview, October 7, 1997, that he felt ambivalent about offering the motion against Rogers, since he viewed Rogers as, “a goddess,” but concluded she was neither a student nor a delegate.

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