Chapter 17: Pro-West Moderate Militants

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Africa and PanAfricanism

Hakim Adi, West Africans in Britain 1900-1960: Nationalism, Pan-Africanism and Communism (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1998)

David Birmingham, Kwame Nkrumah: The Father of African Nationalism (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1998)

Basil Davidson, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (Oxford: James Currey Publishers: 2007)

David J. Finlay, Students and Politics in Ghana, Daedalus [Students and Politics Issue] Winter, 1968, Vol. 97; 51-69.

Richard D. Mahoney, Ordeal in Africa (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983)

Martin Staniland, American Intellectuals and African Nationalists, 1955-1970 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991)

John Stockwell, In Search of Enemies: A CIA Story (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1979); Written by a former CIA case officer, now critical of the CIA.



Gerald J. Bender, “Angola: Left, Right and Wrong,” Foreign Policy 43 Summer 1981; 53-69.

Fred Bridgland, Jonas Savimbi: A Key to Africa: The Story Behind the Battle for Angola (New York: Paragon House, 1987).

Daniel M. Friedenberg, “The Public Relations of Colonialism: Salazar’s Mouthpiece in the U.S,” Africa Today, 9:3, April 1962; 4-16. A U.S. public relations firm tried to discredit Roberto and Savimbi as Moscow puppets at a time when both received CIA subsidies.

John A. Marcum, The Angolan Revolution Volume 1, The Anatomy of an Explosion: 1950-1962 (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1968); and Volume 2, Exile Politics and Guerrilla Warfare (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1978)

Elaine Windrich, The Cold War Guerrilla: Jonas Savimbi, the U.S. Media and the Angolan War (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1992) Covers the 1980s when the Reagan administration backed Savimbi as a freedom fighter.


South Africa and Apartheid

Thomas Borstelmann, Apartheid’s Reluctant Uncle: The United States and Southern Africa in the Early Cold War (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993)

Donald Culverson, Contesting Apartheid: U.S. Activism 1960-1987 (Boulder, Co: Westview Press, 1999)

Gail Gerhart, Black Power in South Africa: The Evolution of an Ideology (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1979)

George Hauser, “Meeting Africa’s Challenge: The Story of the American Committee on Africa,” A Quarterly Journal of Africanist Opinion, Issue 6:2-3 (Summer-Fall 1976)

Ronnie Kasrils, Armed and Dangerous: My Undercover Struggle Against Apartheid [African Writers Series] (Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1993); Autobiographical account of a White South African member of the African National Congress and former South Africa Communist Party member.

Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (Boston: Little, Brown, 1995)

Xolela Mangcu, Biko: A Biography (London: I. B. Tauris & Co., 2012)

Kenneth Mokoena, ed. South Africa and the United States: The Declassified History (New York: New Press, 1993) Documents released by the National Security Archive, based in Washington, D.C.

Jason Parker, “Apartheid Reluctant Uncle: The United States and South Africa in the early Cold War,” Diplomatic History, Vol. 30, Issue 5; 867-892.

Tor Sellstrom In Sweden and National Liberation in South Africa, Volume I: Formation of a Popular Opinion 1950-1970 (Stockholm: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1999) check

George W. Shepherd, Jr., Anti-Apartheid: Transnational Conflict and Western Policy in the Liberation of Southern Africa (Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1977)

Donald Woods, Biko (New York: Henry Holt, 1991)



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 9: Hans Dall departure from COSEC: In his letter to Willard Johnson, Crawford Young wrote: “It is wise to begin thinking of ways to persuade Hans to leave.” He suggested they “move in on Hans at the WUS [World University of Students] Assembly meeting,” adding that “the scheme is involved and must be handled very delicately.”

Note 21: History of FSLP (Foreign Student Leadership Project): The Ford Foundation granted $128,000 in 1956; $88,000 in 1958; and $22,000 in 1961. Ford Foundation oversight was so lackadaisical that between July 8, 1959 and September 13, 1962, NSA did not file a single report to the foundation until Melvin J. Fox, responsible for international programs, complained. Ford Foundation officials occasionally sat in on FSLP board meetings but only as ex-officio members and were not part of the decision-making process to award foreign student scholarships.

Note 23 COSEC Colonials: Isaac E. Omolo Okero: Omolo is first mentioned in 1951 in connection with a FYSA travel grant. A Kenyon, he obtained his law degree at the University of Bombay, where he headed the African Students Association. He was an Associate Secretary for Africa on COSEC (1957-1960). He later served in Kenya’s parliament from 1969-79, and held several Cabinet positions (Health; Power and Communications; Information and Broadcasting). He became chair of Kenya Airways. For a sense of Omolo’s role in Kenyan politics, see Jennifer A. Widner, The Rise of A Party-State in Kenya (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993) See also www. A member of Okero’s Kagola clan described Omolo in harsher terms than did David Baad, as a “right-wing neo-colonial apparatchik.”

Note 34: Kofi Annan: In Isaac Omolo’s April 28, 1959 letter to Harald Bakken, the director of FSLP, Omolo elaborated on his recommendation of Annan: “Kofi Annan is a good chap very outgoing and can gain a lot from a project like yours. Trouble is that he is young and tends at times to be frivolous but if you can get him to work which should not be difficult he is a good lad. Ghana as you well know has not as yet produced many dynamic leaders and you have had worse candidates. I would certainly give Kofi a try.” H/NSA Box 13 (COSEC).

Note 36: Kwame Nkrumah: Nkrumah came to power in 1957 and ruled Ghana until he was ousted in a 1966 coup. Recent declassified documents show the U.S. aided and abetted the coup. See documents in Foreign Relations of the United States: Africa 1964-1968; see also John Stockwell (In Search of Enemies), the first to disclose the CIA hand. See above for biographies of Nkrumah.

Note 42 Holden Roberto: Historian Douglas Brinkley interviewed Holden Roberto in 1991, and quoted him as saying he was influenced by the Senator Kennedy’s Algerian speech in 1957.   JFK was then chair of the Sub-committee on Africa of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which is why he became a logical point of contact with African revolutionary leaders. Douglas Brinkley and Richard T. Griffiths, JFK and Europe (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999)

Note 49: Jonas Savimbi: After he died in 2002, the Guardian called him a “diamond smuggler,” and “as important in southern Africa as Nelson Mandela and as negative a force as Mandela was positive.” The same Savimbi was once described by Chester Crocker, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State under Reagan, as “one of the most talented and charismatic of leaders in modern African history.”

Note 55: Deolinda Rodriques de Almeida: Almeida was a leader in UGEAN (Congress of the General Union of the Students Black African under Portuguese Colonial Role), an organization opposed by USNSA as radical and Marxist, if not pro-communist. Today Almeida is a celebrated heroine in Angola; she died in 1967 after an encounter with Holden Roberto’s forces. See M. S. Gill, Immortal Heroes of the World (New Delhi: Sarup & Sons, 2005)174

Note 57: Paul Tuba (Also spelled Touba): NSA supported Touba’s travel from the Congo, as well as his domestic travel, living expenses, room and board, tuition and insurance for a total of $5,240 or roughly $41,000 in 2014 dollars. H/NSA Box 160 (Angola). The last reference to Tuba I could find was an interview in 1975 by Robin Wright with Holden Roberto. Wright described Tuba as Roberto’s, “American-educated aide.”

Note 78: Stephen Bantu Biko: Donald Woods’ biography of Biko formed the basis of the movie, Cry Freedom. Twenty years after Biko’s murder in 1977, South African police officials acknowledged their responsibility for his death to the Commission on Truth and Reconciliation, headed by Bishop Desmond Tutu. Prior to that time, biographer Donald Woods, who relentlessly pursued the question of who murdered Biko, himself became a target of the South African government and fled to England.

Note 79. Université Laval: The text referred in error to Laval College, which is a high school in Canada.  After publication, Paul Becker, the Canadian organizer for the ISC, emailed the author the following story: “COSEC published the poster as ‘Univesité de Laval,’ nearly causing mass rioting in Quebec!  What a crisis!  At 4 am the next morning I hit upon a solution.  We printed up thousands of peel and stick squares displaying the coat of arms of the University and we recruited pubescent seminarians from the Grand Seminaire de Québec (in whose gymnasium the plenary sessions of the 10th ISC were to take place) to stick them onto the “de” on each poster, thereby saving the Canadian Confederation and the honour of the first Bishop of New France (Laval).”

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