Chapter 10: Shifting Battlefields

Scroll down for Extended Endnotes


Algerian War of Liberation

Alistair Horne, A Savage War of Peace, Algeria 1954-1962 (London: Macmillan: 1977)

Benjamin Stora, Jane Marie Todd, William B. Quandt, Eds., “The Algerian Civil War, 1954-1962,” Algeria, A Short History (Ithaca: Cornell University: 2004)

Yahia Zoubir, “U.S. and Soviet Policies Towards France’s Struggle with Anticolonial Nationalism in North Africa, Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 30, no. 3, December 1995, pp. 439-466

See also Chapter 13, Courting Revolutionaries 

Racism and U. S. Foreign Policy

Kevin E. Grimm, Color and Credibility, Eisenhower, the U.S. Information Agency, and Race 1955- 1957, M.A. thesis (PDF available at www.]

Kenneth W. Heger, “Race Relations in the United States and American Cultural and Informational Programs in Ghana, 1957-1966,” Prologue (Winter 1999), Vol. 31: 4. [Published on line by NARA:

George White, Jr., Holding the Line: Race, Racism, and American Foreign Policy Toward Africa, 1953-1961 (New York: Rowen and Littlefield, 2005)


Racism in the United States

Thomas L. Bynum, NAACP Youth and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1936–1965 (Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 2013)

Diane McWhorter, “The Day Authorine Lucy Dated to Integrate the University of Alabama,” Journal of Blacks in Higher Education 32 (Summer 2001): 100-101

James T. Patterson, Brown V. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and its Troubled Legacy (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001)

Stephen J. Whitfield, A Death in the Delta: The Story of Emmett Till (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991)



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, and supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 9: Autherine Lucy Case: “Opinion About U.S. Treatment of Negroes,” USIA Public Opinion Barometer Reports. The United States Information Agency surveyed foreign press reports and found the Lucy incident had become an “international cause célèbre.” USIA policy was to depict race relations in the United States as constantly improving, the same argument used by NSA for international consumption. See also above, Kevin E. Grimm.

Note 10: Crawford Young biographical information: In his 1955 summer seminar application, Crawford Young wrote that for the past three summers he had served in the U.S. Army as an “Aide de Camp, Deputy CG [Commanding General], Fifth Army, Chicago. Born in 1931, Young graduated in 1953 from the University of Michigan, where he had been managing editor of the Michigan Daily. At the time he applied for ISRS, he was 24 and listed his permanent address as Washington, D.C. H/NSA Box (29, 1955-59 ). It is not clear what Young did between his graduation in 1953 and his seminar application of May 1955. He had attended one NSA Congress in 1952, prior to being admitted to ISRS in 1955. He also received a Fulbright (1955-56), and served both on COSEC (1956-1957) and in the Paris post (1957-1958). Young became a well-known specialist on African politics, and is now an emeritus professor at the University of Wisconsin.

Crawford Young has recorded an oral history (sound recoding), available in the University of Wisconsin Archives and Special Collections. Two tapes were restriction until January 1, 2014, and may not be used without his written consent. Another tape is restricted until 2024, and may not be used without his written consent. According to the website, the oral history covers topics such as his military service and his positions with NSA in Paris, and COSEC in Leiden.

Note 41: Highlights of Luigi Einaudi career:   Einaudi served twice on the Policy and Planning staff, Department of State,1974-1977; 1993-1998; as U.S. Ambassador to OAS 1989-1993; as OAS Assistant Secretary General, 2000; and as Acting Secretary of the OAS in 2004. Since 2007, he has been affiliated faculty with the National Defense University.

Note 81: Barry Farber’s mission to Moscow: In May 1956, international affairs vice president, Clive Gray, spoke with Barry Farber, a former NSA participant from the University of North Carolina (he served as Chair of the Virginia-Carolinas Region, 1951-52) about a proposed trip Farber wanted to take to Moscow.

  • On May 25, 1956 Farber wrote to Gray: “It was a real pleasure speaking with you last Wednesday from Baltimore, especially so since it appears you have approved suggestions that NSA take advantage of my upcoming trip to Russia and have approved an honorarium to help me on my way.” He planned to interview Russian students, try to penetrate the “workings of the Soviet League of Anti-Fascist Youth, if such an organization exists,” and get a general feeling for Soviet life and culture. Farber planned to return in time for the end-of-summer NSA Congress and speak to the delegates. H/NSA (Box 26)
  • On June 6, 1956, Gray warned Farber that, “Under no circumstances should anyone know that you are receiving funds from USNSA in return for future  information…” On that day, Gray also sent additional funding to Farber care of the American Embassy in Oslo, Norway. At that point, Farber also planned to attend the Fourth World Student Congress in Prague. Gray also asked Farber “to destroy these letters or keep them in some completely safe place in Western Europe, since there is a strong possibility they would be discovered and read by agents in Eastern Europe, if you took them there.” (In the event, Clive Gray left his own copy in the files.) H/NSA Box 26
  • The trip turned into an adventure/fiasco, and one that didn’t include reaching the Soviet Union. Farber relayed the turn of events to Gray in “strictest confidence,” in an August 18,1956 letter written from Paris, not Moscow. The Soviet trip was abandoned after a convoluted series of encounters in Oslo with a possible Soviet defector from the Soviet Fleet; the American Embassy advised Farber to leave town immediately and return to the United States; Farber decided to ignore the Embassy officials and Norwegian government concerns. He instead few to Paris, and with the blessing of American Embassy officials in Paris, he tried to get into Czechoslovakia for the World Student Congress. Czech officials asked Farber to produced an official invitation, which he could not, and he was refused entry. H/NSA (Box 26)
  • On September 17, 1956 Farber informed NSA that the last blow was the threat by the U.S. Department of State to revoke his passport should he travel Czechoslovakia. He offered to return some of the NSA money. H/NSA (Box 26)

Farber is today a well-known radio talk show host who occasionally writes or talks about his experiences with NSA, although apparently not this particular comedy-of-errors journey.

Chapters 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26