Chapter 16: Showdown in Madison

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The New Left

Edward J. Bacciocco, Jr. The New Left in America: Reform or Revolution, 1956-1970 (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1974).

Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam Books, 1987)

Robert A. Haber, “From Protest to Radicalism: An Appraisal of the Student Movement,” Venture (Fall 1960), reprinted in Mitchell Cohen and Denis Hale, The New Student Left: An Anthology (Boston: Beacon Press, 1966) Haber saw USNSA as a fertile recruiting ground for Students for a Democratic Society (SDS).

Tom Hayden, Reunion: A Memoir (New York: Random House, 1998)

Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, The American Left: Its Impact on Politics and Society Since 1900 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013) The development of the new left is situated in a broader sweep of twentieth century history.

Kevin Mattson, Intellectuals in Action: The Origins of the New Left and Radical Liberalism, 1945-1970 (University Park, PA: Penn State University Press, 2001

Allen J. Matusow, The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (Atlanta: University of Georgia Press, 2009)

Paul Potter, A Name for Ourselves (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971) Potter, a University of Michigan student and USNSA officer, was one of the founders of SDS.

Ronald Radosh, Commies: A Journey Through the Old Left (San Francisco, CA: Encounter Books, 2001) In this memoir, Radosh, a New Left activist describes its emergence in Madison, Wisconsin. He has since denounced the left.

Kirkpatrick Sale, SDS: The Rise and Development of Students for a Democratic Society (New York: Vintage, 1973).


Anti-Castro Cuban Exiles

Van Gosse, Where the Boys Are: Cuba, Cold War, and the Making of the New Left (New York: Verso, 1993)

David Kaiser, The Road to Dallas: The Assassination of John F Kennedy,” (Harvard University Press, 2009). Kaiser described DRE (see below) as the “most troublesome anti-Castro org in the U.S.” (p. 313).

David Atlee Phillips, Night Watch: 25 Years of Peculiar Service (New York: Atheneum, 1977) Phillips was a career CIA office and chief of the Western Hemisphere; his responsibilities included Cuba.

Gus Russo, Live By the Sword: The Secret War Against Castro and the Death of JFK (Baltimore, MD: Bancroft Press, 1998) Russo argues that Cuban intelligence was behind Oswald assassination of President Kennedy. Other writers place responsibility on myriad other suspects.

Ted Shackley, Spymaster: My Life in the CIA (Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, 2005) Known as the “Blond Ghost,” he helped trained Cuban exiles to overthrow Castro.



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 2: Committee for a Responsive National Student Organization (CRNSO). Membership included YAF Chair, Robert Schuchman (Yale Law School), David Franke (NYU*), Tom Huston (Ohio-Indiana region), Carol Dawson Bauman (Editor, New Guard), William Cotter (Fordham University), Scott Stanley (University of Kansas Law School), and Fulton Lewis III (HUAC consultant). This list was taken from the CRNSO newsletter. *Other sources list Franke in 1960 as a George Washington University student, who moved to New York about this time.

Note 15: Operation Abolition: The Harvard Student Council censured (13-6) the Department of Naval Science for showing the HUAC-made film, Operation Abolition, and for calling the San Francisco anti-HUAC demonstrations in May 1960 as “Communist inspired.”   See Harvard Crimson, November 29, 1960.

Note 35: Soviet missiles in Cuba: According to Van Gosse (Where the Boys Are), Manuel Salvat and other anti-Castro Cuban students enlisted Claire Booth Luce, a financial supporter of DRE (the anti-Castro underground) to get information on the missiles to Senator Kenneth Keating (R-NY), since the White House was skeptical (p. 122). CIA Director John McCone apparently went to JFK as early as August 1962 with missile evidence but JFK wanted “hard evidence.” (p. 149)

Note 36: Key members of DRE – information
Kaiser (The Road to Dallas) estimated there were 5,000 DRE members in U.S. and Latin America. He names the DRE CIA case officer as David Atlee Phillips

Juan Manuel Salvat, Code name AFFINT-2; CIA case officer, Ross Crozier (Kaiser, p. 121); Kaiser quotes Phillips describing Salvat “head strong but fearless” and a “Cool operator in spite of temper.” (p. 121); Kaiser states that funding for Salvat began in September 1960 when he was the publicity chief for DRE. (p. 313) Kaiser on DRE animus against JFK (p. 321) Russo (Live by the Sword) describes Salvat as a “Corpulent, hot-tempered mastermind.” As of 2015, Salvat resides in Miami.

DRE’s animus against the JFK administration by 1963 stemmed from the President’s attempt to stop the DRE-run “boom and bang” raids against Cuba. He issued an order that prohibited the exiles from leaving the United States. The Miami Herald, April 1, 1963 quotes Salvat: “The U.S. gave us facilities to fight Castro. Now it is taking them back. We are alone.” He publicly vowed to continue fighting. On November 19, 1963, JFK cut off all funding (Jefferson Morley, Miami Herald, April 12, 2001).

Salvat and other DRE members were interviewed in conjunction with the Kennedy Assassination, because Lee Harvey Oswald had an encounter with a DRE member in New Orleans. At the time of the assassination, the CIA requested that DRE members refrain from giving publicity to the New Orleans episode; they ignored the command, and spread the word that the assassination was a Castro plot. CIA Director Helms never revealed to the Warren Commission that investigated the JFK assassination that the Cuban students had CIA funding.

Jose Antonio Gonzalez Lanuza, Coordinator, North American DRE Chapters, reported to George Joannides, one of the top ranking members of the special Cuban task force. After the Kennedy assassination, Lanuza gave the FBI information on Jack Ruby after he shot suspected assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in Dallas. The Warren Commission (Exhibit 3056) described Lanuza in June 23, 1964 as an “Intelligence officer for the DRE in Miami.”

Lesmes Ruiz: After he spoke at the NSA Congress in 1961, he participated with Salvat in shelling raids against Cuba. He remained in exile until his death in 2013.

Note 39: Castro dissidents close to NSA:

  • Alberto Muller He was arrested in early 1961, and spent 15 years in prison. He was released in 1976, and, as of 2015, lives in Miami, where, since the early 1990s, he has advocated dialogue with the Castro regime. See
  • José Puente Blanco, the Cuban student union president (FEU), who co-sponsored in 1959-1960 with NSA Operation Amistad (cheap flights for American students to Havana), went underground in 1960, and joined anti-Castro forces for the Bay of Pigs invasion, was arrested, twice escaped and was captured. See HSRC Segregated CIA Documents at NARA document: 104-10180-10066, no date, biographical sheet on José Puente Blanco.

Salvat and Muller helped create an archive for the Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil en el Exilio (DRE) Records, Cuban Heritage Collection, University of Miami Libraries, Coral Gables, Florida.

Note 54. Hayden speech re secretive elites:  After publication, the author was contacted by Michael Myerson, head of the U.S. Festival Committee for the World Youth Festival in Helsinki, who pointed out that, in the early 1960s, he and his colleagues suspected CIA involvement in NSA but were ignored.  For example, Meyerson attended the 1961 NSA Congress in Madison as the head of SLATE, a new political party from the University of California at Berkeley, where he (and others) tried to raise the issue.  Whatever suspicions Hayden had, he remained publicly circumspect in his rhetoric.

Note 55. Ed Garvey won over Paul Potter 229 to 159, a vote count widely viewed as indicating the relative strength between liberals and the left at the NSA Congress.

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