Chapter 9: The Spirit of Bandung

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Afro-Asian Conference, Bandung, 1955

Kweku Ampiah, The Political and Moral Imperatives of the Bandung Conference of 1955: the reactions of the US, UK and Japan (London: Global Oriental, 2007)]

Shanta Anand, Communist China in the Bandung Conference (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1957)

Cary Fraser, “An American Dilemma: Race and Realpolitik in the American Response to the Bandung Conference 1955,” in Brenda Gayle Plummer (Ed.) Window on Freedom: Race, Civil Rights and Foreign Affairs, 1945-1988 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003)

Matthew Jones, “A ‘Segregated” Asia? Race, the Bandung conference, and Pan-Asianist Fears in American Thought and Policy: 1954-1955),” Diplomatic History (November 2005) Vol. 29: 5, pp. 841-868.

Maya Kulkarni, Indo-Soviet Political Relations Since the Bandung Conference of 1955 (Bombay: Vora & Co., 1968)

George McTurnan Kahin, The Asian-African Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1956)

John David Skrentny, ”The Effect of the Cold War on African-American Civil Rights: The World Audience, 1945-66,” Theory and Society (April 27, 1998), pp. 237-285.

Richard Wright, The Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference (Cleveland: World Publishing Company., 1956)



W. Brands, The Specter of Neutralism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990)

James A. C. Mackie, Bandung 1955: Non-Alignment and Afro-Asian Solidarity (Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2005)

Natasa Miskovic, Harald Fischer-Tiné, and Nada Boskovska, The Non-Alignment Movement and the Cold War (Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2014). Explored from the perspective of the countries who asserted doctrines of non-alignment 



All notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, and supply additional information or evidence, and should be read together.

Note 6: Bandung Bibliography: See above.

Note 15: Air India explosion: In his book, Armies of Ignorance (E.P. Dutton, 1977), William Corson, a former Marine Corps intelligence officer assigned to Asia, recounted the story of a lower level official in the American Embassy in New Delhi who claimed he worked for the CIA and help sabotage the Air India plane. The official later defected to the Soviet Union, and except for the record of his employment with the American embassy, his story hasn’t been collaborated. This contrasts with the work cited in Note 14 that the culprits were thought to be Taiwanese agents.

Note 54: Philippines delegate: NSA ally from the Philippines, Guillermo C. de Vega, became a presidential assistant to the Philippines dictator Ferdinand Marcos; he was so prominent that he won the moniker of “Little President.” He was later implicated in a bribery scandal and murdered on October 27, 1975, while inside Malacanang (the Marcos complex). See Sterling Seagrave, The Marcos Dynasty (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), p. 273; See also, Primitivo Mijares, The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos (Unique Square Publications, 1986) The assassin was identified as Paulino Arceo. Recently, Wikileaks published a U.S. Embassy cable, written in 1975, on the death of de Vega. American officials believed he was murdered over a personal dispute, and called him Marcos’ “hatchet man with a reputation for corruption.”   See

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