Chapter 6: The Counteroffensive

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Counter Offensive – see General Bibliography

Post-Independence Indonesia

George McTurnan Kahin, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1952)

Richard Mason, “The United States, The Indonesian National Revolution and the Cold War,” Journal of Oriental Studies (Hong Kong: 1992) 30 (1-2), pp. 60-75


British Intelligence

Richard J. Aldrich, British Intelligence, Strategy, and the Cold War, 1945-1951 (London: Routledge, 1992)

See Richard J. Aldrich, “The OSS, CIA and European Unity: The American Committee on United Europe, 1948-1960, Diplomacy & Statecraft 8:1, 1997, 184-227.

Stephen Dorril in MI6: Inside the Covert World of her Majesty’s Secret Intelligence Service (New York: Free Press, 2000)

Jack Straw, Last Man Standing: Memoirs of a Political Survivor (London: Macmillan, 2012)


Soviet Youth Organization

I. Ploss, “Political Education in the Postwar Komsomol, “ American Slavic and East European Review Vol. 15 No. 4 (December, 1956) pp. 489-505.


Stalinist Purges in East Europe

Karel Kaplan, Report on the Murder of the General Secretary (London: I.B. Tauris, 1990)

Heda Margolius-Kovaly, Under a Cruel Star: A Life in Prague 1941-1968 (New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc., 1997).

Eugene Loebl, translated by Maurice Michael, Sentenced and Tried: the Stalinist Purges in Czechoslovakia (London: Elek, 1969)

Jiri Pelikan, ed., The Czechoslovak Political Trials, 1950-1954: the Suppressed Report of the Dubcek Government’s Commission of Inquiry, 1968 London: Macdonald, 1971) Pelikan, who directed the International Union of Students for more than ten years, fled Czechoslovakia after the 1968 events known as Prague Spring.



ALL notes correspond to the endnotes in Patriotic Betrayal, and supply additional information, evidence, or further reading.

Note 23: Support for Helen Jean Rogers Latin American work: Rogers’ trip was ostensibly financed by the NCWC Youth Department, although most likely Catholic staff passed on external private funds. NCWC archives contain references to funds awarded during this period from J. Peter Grace, whose family’s company, W. R. Grace & Company had shipping and trading interests in Latin America. See NCWC, 91/6 (Social Action) July 25, 1952 interoffice memo, Youth Department director Joseph Schieder wrote that the contact with Grace began “almost five years ago,” putting the date in 1947. Schieder also noted that Grace had funded Catholic participation in the formation of the World Assembly of Youth, another CIA counteroffensive. J. Peter Grace also participated in the CIA-funded American Committee for the Liberation from Bolshevism, which sponsored Radio Liberty. He is also infamous for his post-war assistance in bringing Nazi Germany scientists to the United States, a controversial operation known as Operation Paperclip. See, Clarence G. Lasby, Project Paperclip: German Scientists and the Cold War, (New York: Scribner, 1975) as well as more recent, Anne Jacobsen, Operation Paperclip: The Secret Intelligence Program that Brought Nazi Scientists to America (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 2014)

Note 61: U.S.-British intelligence cooperation: In MI6, Dorril (p. 472) acknowledged that British staff on the ISC Coordinating Secretariat had a relationship with British intelligence but claimed these students were “not conscious.” Dorril may have written before there had been much acknowledgement of the relationship. Margaret (Meta) Ramsey, for example, former president of Scottish National Union of Students, was an Associate Secretary at COSEC, and led the Fund for International Student Co-operation (FISC). Ramsay, today Baroness of Cartvale, has acknowledged that British intelligence approached her during her Leiden years in the early 1960s. (Tim Luckhurst, The Times, June 15, 2003.) She subsequently spent twenty years with MI6, rising to top positions.

Former British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw, a member of the British National Union of Students (Last Man Standing), wrote: “The connection between National Union of Students (NUS) leadership and our agencies was a surprisingly ill-kept secret, as alumni of the NUS executive went off to the more opaque departments of the Foreign Office or to the Fund for International Student Co-operation (FISC), whose officials in turn had remarkable luck in finding careers in the Foreign Office.”

The British-CIA intelligence relationship was far-reaching through all the CIA counteroffensive organizations, although not all have been explored. An exception is Aldrich (The OSS, CIA and European Unity), see above.

Note 66: Laurence Duggan, Institute of International Education, Director: Whittaker Chambers accused Duggan of being a Soviet spy. See Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America (New York: Random House, 1999) They cite Soviet files that seem to confirm Duggan was a Soviet agent (p. 20) but there is reason to be dubious of this charge. The evidence consists of some short-term cooperation by Duggan while serving in the U.S. Department of State during the 1930s, a relationship the authors note ceased after Duggan grew upset over news of Stalin’s purges. On July 1, 1948, Duggan either refused to meet with a Soviet “handler” at IIE or engage in “compromising conversation.” (p. 21) On Dec. 20, 1948, Duggan “jumped or fell” to his death from the 16 floor of the IIE building, “tragically terminating his long, anguished, and ambivalent association with Soviet intelligence.” They claim that Soviets targeted IIE because they believed the institute “was actively used by American intelligence.” This was certainly ironic, since it was Duggan who resisted the request from the CIA to see the files on students and educators.

Note 75: FBI attack on Cord Meyer: According to Evan Thomas, CIA men Richard Bissell and Tom Braden were sailing when they learned of Hoover’s attack on the Cord Meyer. They drove immediately to Washington, D.C. to stand by Meyer. See General Bibliographies, (The Very Best Men).

Note 88: Ralph Blumenau re Tom Madden: In 2002, Ralph Blumenau and Tom Madden corresponded over material in Joel Kotek’s book, The Student Cold War, in which Kotek charged that Madden hid his Communist party credentials when he was an officer for the International Union of Students. Blumenau, who translated Kotek’s book into English, and who opposed Madden’s politics at the time, told me in 2003 that he believes Madden is telling the truth when he asserts he was not a party member while at the IUS, and has added a footnote to his unpublished manuscript to reflect his belief. In a contemporary interview, Madden told me that, after he returned to England, he briefly joined the Communist Party but left when the Soviets invaded Hungary, noting that he has spent some years, “kicking himself up the backside,” for his membership.

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